PCB Fabrication Simplified

Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) are thin plates of electronic components designed to transfer information within self-contained modules as well as communicate with external devices. The Printed Circuit Board was invented and applied in 1936 by Austrian Engineer Paul Esler as part of a radio set. Today, most circuits used in electronic appliances, machines, computers, and mobile phones are made up of PCBs.

Printed Circuit BoardsIndustrial PCB fabrication consists of many steps which follow the strict protocols set by the IPC in relation to assembly, design, and quality control. These protocols set the standard for each manufacturing company, big or small, all around the globe to ensure that the customers will never get a defective product.

After the design process has been accomplished, data is brought inside an isolated fabrication facility with a controlled environment, preventing the raw material from getting damaged. In here, multiple steps are followed in accordance to the standards of the IPC.

PCB CAM

PCB fabrication starts using the data generated through Computer-Aided Design (CAD) which is read by Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. The CAM processes the raw data from the CAD and after verification and adjustment, the CAM generates data that will later be used by the different machines in the manufacturing process.

Copper Patterning

Copper sheets are patterned with protective layers through the fabricator’s CAM system using different methods such as silkscreen, photoengraving, and milling depending on the manufacturer. These patterns will protect the parts of the copper that will be kept during the etching process.

Copper Reduction

The patterned copper board is bathed in a chemical solution of either Ferric Chloride (FeCl) or a mixture of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCL). This removes the excess copper and leaves only the desired pattern. Once reduced, layers of fiberglass are added and afterwards, plated in copper. For multiplayer PCB fabrication, the above processes are repeated until the required number of layers is reached.

Drilling

The plated boards are sent to be cleaned, dried, and drilled with computer-controlled machinery. Vias, or smaller holes that are used to connect board layers are plated during the drilling process. Vias are used to electronically join the layers of copper where the hole passes through. Further cleaning is done to remove any unnecessary dust that may cause the boards to short-circuit when electric charges are applied to them.

Soldering

Solder masks are applied to the holes in order to protect the copper from natural oxidation and to prevent solders from sticking. On the other hand, solder pads and connections are intentionally left unmasked to allow for an easier time soldering in gold over nickel or tin, achieving conduction along with protection for the underlying copper.

Printing

As per the ICP standards for PCB fabrication, a legend is printed on one or both sides of the PCB. It contains the test points, component designators, switch settings, and other vital information helpful in assembling, servicing, and testing the circuit board.

Bare-board Testing

Unpopulated boards, or boards without any components yet such as resistors, capacitors, or inductors, are subjected to a series of tests in order to ensure their quality and functionality. These tests include (1) visual inspection guided by the published guidelines of JEDEC Solid State Technology Association (formerly Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council), (2) analog signature analysis, (3) in-circuit tests where empirical data such as resistance, voltage, and other basic quantities are measured, and (4) functionality tests to see if the PCB could do what it was designed to do.

Packaging and Protection

The accomplished boards are coated with conformal coating to prevent corrosion, current leakage, or electric shorts due to condensation. A more commonly used technique for protection is sputtering the board in a soft plastic bag inside a vacuum chamber. PCBs are sensitive to static electricity and therefore, are sealed inside antistatic bags during transportation.

Those are the key steps of fabrication. While those may still seem complicated, it’s safe to say that many companies have mastered the art of manufacturing PCBs.

Who to Inquire About Homes for Sale Long Island NY

Owning one or two homes for sale Long Island NY is a worthwhile investment. Not only does it give one the opportunity to have a place to stay in the city, but it could also be a very good business venture by putting the property on lease if it’s not preferred as the main residence. Now, to get the most out of a housing investment, clients have to be sure that they own one of the best houses in terms of structure, design, accessibility, and other aspects. To help them with this, professional advice from a trusted real estate agent will be a good tool, more so if they’re hired to do the job of scouting for the desired property, but how would a client know that the agent he or she employed is indeed reliable? The answer is to look for the hallmarks of a go-getter. To know more about it then click here.

Real EstateIf you the job to be done just the way you want it to be, an assertive agent with the right amount of know how will be the best choice. Go-getter agents are characterized by being always out and about closing properties, so they would most probably schedule meetings with prospective clients in or near the vicinity of their current project. Additionally, a good way to weigh the agent’s prowess is to learn how many deals he or she has successfully made; three and above deals a year is exceptional for an agent. When eyeing homes for sale Long Island NY it is best to pick an agent who is based locally and may have grown up in the city; he or she usually has a good background on the local market, city standards and history, and can offer broad suggestions regarding properties that the client may like. An open house is a good event to find them, or they may be referred by relatives, friends or colleagues who have had the pleasure of working with them. To make sure that there’s no bias when picking an agent, it would be best to interview at least more than two of them.

In addition to being assertive, pick a real estate agent who is always ready to communicate. It doesn’t always have to be a conversation in person; an agent who is visible online through social media, a personal or corporate webpage, email, or bothers to keep customers updated through phone calls or text is a mark of commitment to his or her work and clients. Aside from being available for queries about homes for sale Long Island NY the ability of the agent to assist clients with the entire process of purchasing the house is also a very valuable aspect. This not only implies that the agent aims to do a good job, but is also concerned about his or her client’s satisfaction.

How Custom Challenge Coins Are Made

Challenge coins have been around for a very long time and are currently being used by different sectors, mostly by the military or the defense sector. Along with medals and awards, a challenge coin bears great significance for the owner. Members of the United States military have a long standing tradition of carrying these coins as a symbol of brotherhood and unit identity. A challenge coin will usually have the organization’s symbol or emblem and is usually presented to the member by someone with ranking authority as recognition for their services and achievements.

Custom Challenge Coinsin History

Custom Challenge CoinsNo one knows exactly when challenge coins first came to be. In fact, there are a lot of stories revolving around its wonderful origins. The most common story is about a young World War I pilot who carried his medallion unit minted specifically for their air squadron by their lieutenant. Shortly after he got his medallion, his plane crashed behind enemy lines and was immediately captured by German soldiers. He was stripped of all his personal identification, save for his squad medallion, and taken to a French town. One night, in the middle of a bombardment, he escaped. Eventually, he was able to avoid all German patrols to reach the front lines, and with great difficulty, crossed No-Man’s Land. Unfortunately, he did not have any proof of his identity as a United States pilot. The French outpost who found him thought that he was a saboteur and prepared to execute him. Fortunately, one of his French captors recognized the emblem on his medallion, stalling the execution long enough to properly identify him. And instead of an execution, he got a bottle of wine.

After this incident, it became mandatory for a military unit’s members to carry their squadron coin at all times. Challenge coins became even more popular during the Vietnam War. The Special Forces minted coins to express their unit’s unique identity and the strong brotherhood that has been formed within the unit. Other units had their own challenge coins minted as a means to build camaraderie and to symbolize the pride of being a part of an elite group of soldiers.

A challenge coin is not just a token. Today, they are a source of pride among the soldiers of the United States military at every level of its chain of command. Some commanders also use them for on-the-spot rewards. Senior military members hand out challenge coins as gifts to foreign diplomats or civilian VIPs.Most importantly, a challenge coin is supposed to be carried at all times by every member of the military. Coin checks are pretty much still a part of being in the military. It even carries a penalty for those who are found without their coin. In fact, some of those penalties include buying drinks for the whole squad.

Its popularity has now even spread to people outside of the military. Today, several minting companies have started selling old collectible and custom challenge coins.

There are a lot of people who are fond of custom challenge coins, either as a souvenir or as their organization’s own personal emblem. For example, a businessman can give out custom challenge coins to exemplary employees as acknowledgement of their hard work. While compensation is also important for your employees, giving them a special commemorative coin along with the monetary reward to give them the morale boost to continue along their path of success.

Custom challenge coins are pretty easy and inexpensive to make. You can even use gold, silver, or any metallic alloy finish on your custom challenge coinsto make it even more special.

How to use Golf drivers

One of the most important shots a golf player would do during a golf game is the tee shot. The tee shot is also known as the first shot of the round. By executing a nicely done tee shot, a golf player could lessen the number of drives he needs to do to place the ball in the green. His goal, therefore, is to strike the ball in such a way that flight distance and speed would be maximized. To do this, he would need the aid of the driver. More importantly, he would need to know how to use golf drivers.

First off, what are golf drivers?

Golf driversGolf drivers are a sub-category of Woods. Woods are the long distance golf clubs, designed to make the ball fly at the greatest distance achievable from the fairway towards the hole. The biggest kind of woods is the golf driver. Also known as 1-wood, this particular golf club is the longest and the lightest club available for a player. It is called 1-wood because it has the lowest loft out of all the set of numbered woods. Because golf drivers can make the ball fly the farthest, they are usually used at the tee shot.

In using the golf driver, a golf player should first know how to approach the ball. This means working on the stance. The first thing a player should do is line up his body so that one side would be facing the green. He should then face the golf ball and ensure that the ball is ahead of the head. The ball should not be directly below as this could limit the room for swinging, increasing the chance of the driver hitting the ground rather than the ball. With legs at hip-width apart and knees slightly bent, the player should then tilt his spine so that the rear shoulder is lower than the forward shoulder.

The player should first work on a stance that would allow him the best movement and the most comfort. When he has become used to the driving stance, he should then practice his swings.

While in his stance, he should start with pushing the club head away from his body. It is best to do this at a low angle. He should keep his leading arm straight while he is pushing back the driver. This action is called the backswing. The leading arm is straightened during the backswing so that it would be kept straight when the golf player goes for the downswing.

When he has pushed back far enough, he should then go to the next step, the downswing. To do the downswing, all the player needs to do is to swing the driver back down, following the route of the backswing. The swing should have built up on momentum so that a strong strike would be delivered. The aim of the downswing is not to hit the ball as strong as possible, but to execute the downswing as smoothly as he can.

He should keep his arms extended when performing the downswing. The body should also be as straight as the arms. Doing so would focus the force on the club and would also make the swing done smoothly.

When the player has executed the downswing, he should feel the impact of the club with the ball. The moment after this happens, he should lift and turn his rear foot. Turning the foot would add additional strength, allowing the ball to fly straighter and farther. If the golf player turns hi body before he hit the ball, he would only end up slicing the ball.

Finally, he should follow through with his swing by folding his front elbow, placing his front forearm below his rear arm. The follow through would add to the speed of the driver’s head.

Different Materials Used in Making Badge Lanyards

There are different types of materials used in making badge lanyards. Each type has its own distinct characteristics and value. Manufacturers buy rolls of several materials in bulk. They will cut those into strips and make tons of lanyards. For badge lanyards, the ideal length is 36 inches. The finish product will be at most 18 inches long. Small manufacturers cut the materials manually while large manufacturers use machines for doing that. Man-made materials like polyester and nylon are usually cut into strips with the use of a hot blade. In this way, the heat produced by the knife seals the edges of the material and thus, prevents it from fraying.

Here are some of the most commonly used materials in making badge lanyards.

• Dye sublimated lanyard

badge lanyardsIn making this lanyard, heat and pressure is utilized. They are responsible for the application of the imprints on the material. The client’s logo is first laid on a piece of paper. Unlike hot stamping and silkscreen printing, the imprint in a dye sublimated lanyard is not directly applied on the material. The imprint is directly applied to a separate material. Afterwards, it will be transferred to the lanyard. In this case, the imprint has a lower tendency of getting scraped and tattered.

White polyester is the initial material used in making the dye sublimated lanyard. The outer color and imprint of the lanyard will be applied all through the sublimation procedure. If you’re looking for high-quality lanyards, then you can go for dye sublimated lanyards. These lanyards are also capable of having back-to-back imprints. Since the process requires a lot of materials, ordering them should be done in large amounts. Usually, the minimum order is about 250 lanyards.

• Polyester Printed Lanyard

This type of lanyard is expensive and has a lower minimum amount of purchase. Usually, manufacturers are making more polyester printed lanyards since they are more popular to customers.

The imprint is applied on the lanyard through silkscreen printing process. This is a similar process used in printing designs on silk-screened mugs and shirts. If you want a clear and detailed output, you must buy polyester printed lanyards.

• Nylon Lanyard

When it comes to quality, nothing can beat nylon lanyards. They are characterized by a smooth and shiny texture. Without any doubt, everyone will be captivated by the attractive and elegant design of nylon lanyards.

The imprints are directly applied on the material through silkscreen printing process. Manufacturers use nylon lanyards for complicated logos and designs. These lanyards are also popular trade items at trade events.

• Woven lanyards

In making these lanyards, the starting material used is polyester. Instead of applying imprints, the design is sewn to the material. Manufacturers apply sewing and patching mechanism in making these lanyards. If you are looking for artistic lanyards, you will be happy and satisfied with woven lanyards.

Woven lanyards are very durable making them last longer. However, one of the shortcomings of this material is that it cannot be used for complex patterns and designs.

• Blank lanyards

Many people love to wear lanyards with plain colors. In this case, a plain cloth is used in making black lanyards. People who buy blank lanyards prioritize the functionality more than the appearance.

Badge lanyards are available in different types and sizes. Aside from determining the type and size, you should also give some attention in choosing the material that will satisfy your personal needs. This is to ensure that you can use the lanyard for a longer time. It is such a waste of money if the lanyard will just easily worn out.